Supporting Research

According to the latest National Healthcare Quality Report, Hospital Associated Infections continue to be one of the most dangerous threats to patient safety in the U.S. See below for further documentation and evidence of this critical healthcare issue.

This reference list is not comprehensive. It is intended to be illustrative of the literature supportive of the concepts used in the development of the Hyprotek PortProtek system, including the development of the Cleaning, High Level Disinfectant solution (CHLD) utilized therein. The list does not imply any priority or relative importance of each paper. They are listed in alphabetical order of the first-named author.

  1. Ahn S-J, Wen ZT, Burne RA; Effects of oxygen on virulence traits of Streptococcus mutans; J Bacteriol 2007: 189 (23) p 8519-8527
  2. Cybulski RJ Jr, Sanz P, Alem F, Stibitz S, Bull, RJ O’Brian AD; Four superoxidwe dismutaswes contribute to Bacillus anthracis virulence and provide spores with redundant protection from oxidative stress; Infect and Immunity Jan 2009 p 274-285
  3. Juda M, Paprota K, Jaloza D, Malm A, Rybojad P Gozdziuk K; EDTYA as a potential agent preventing formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm on polichloride vinyl biomaterials; Ann Agric Environ Med 2008;15, p 237-2412
  4. Donlan RM; Biofilms on central venous catheter: Is eradication possible?; Bacteria Biuofilms, Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2008 p 133-161
  5. Driks A, Bacillus subtilus spore coat; Microbiol Molec Biol Reviews Mar 1999 p 1-20
  6. Dobbins BM, Catton JA, Kite P , McMAHON mj, Wilcox, MH; Each lumen is a potential source of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection; Crit Care Med; 2003 31(6): p 1688-1690
  7. Gowardman JR, Montgomery C, Thirlwell S, Shewan J, Idema A, Larson PD, Havill JH; Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections: an analysis of incidence and risk factors in a cohort of 400 patients; Intensive Care Med 1998 Oct; 24 (10); 1034-9
  8. Hanna H, Raad I, Daroiuiche R; New approaches for prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections;  Infect Med 2001; 18(1): 38-48
  9.  Jacobs GP; A review of the effects of gamma radiation on pharmaceutical materials; J Biomater Appl  1995: 10 (50) p 59-96
  10. Jackson AM, Alexxandroff AB, Lappin MB, Esuvvaranathan K, James K, Chisholm GD; Control of leucocyte function-associated antigen-1-dependent cellular conjugation by divalent cations; Immunoology 1994 81 p 120-126
  11. Knobloch J K-M, Horstkotte MA, Rhode H, Kaulfers P-M, Mack, D; Alcoholic ingredients in skin disinfectants increase biofilm expression of Staphylococcus epidermidis; J Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2002: 49 p 683,687
  12. Linares J; Diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection: conservative techniques; Clinical Infect Disease 2007; 44: 827-29
  13. Lee H-W, Joh, YM, Kim J Lee J-C, Lee Y-C, Seol S-Y, Cho D-T Kin J; Capacity of multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumani to form biofilm and adhere to epithelial cell surfaces; Clin Microbiol Infect 2008; 14:49-54
  14. Levitz SM,Diamond RD; Killing of Aspergillus fumigates spores and Candida albicans yeast phase by the iron-hydrogen peroxide-iodine cytotoxic system comparison with the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide system; Infection and Immunity Mar 1984 p 1100-1102
  15. Lu TK, Collins JJ; Dispersing biofilms with engineered enzymatic bacteriophage;
  16. Maillard J-Y; Antimicrobial biocides in the healthcare environment: efficacy, usage, policies and perceived problems; Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 2005:1 (4) 307-320
  17. McDonnell G,  Russell AD; Antiseptics and Disinfectants: activity, action, resistance; Clinical Microbiology Reviews Jan 1999 p 147-79
  18. McGee DC Gould MK; Preventing complications of central venous catheters; N Engl J Med 2003;348:1123-33
  19. Mukherjee PK, Mohamed S, Chandra J, Kuhn D, Liu S, Antar OS, Munyon R, Mitchell AP, Andes D, Chance MR, Rouabhia M, Ghannoum MA; Alcohol dehydrogenase restricts the ability of the pathogen Candida albicans to form a biofilm on catheter surfaces through and ethanol-based mechanism; Infection and Immunity July 2006 p 3804-3816
  20. Nett JE, Guite KM, Ringeisen A, Holoyda KA, Andes D; Reduced biocide susceptibiolity in Candida albicans biofilms; Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Sept 2008: p 3411-3413
  21. O’May CY, Anderson K, Roddam LF, Kirov S, Reid DW; Iron-binding compounds impair Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation, especially under anaerobic conditions; J Med Microbiol  58 (2009): 765-773 (DOI: 10.1099/jmm 0.004416-0)
  22. PercivaL sl, Kite P, Eastwood K, Murga R, Carr J, Arduino MJ, Donlan RM; Tetrasodium EDTA as a novel central venous catheter lock solution against biofilm; Inffectiion Control and Hospital Epodemiology 2005;26 (6) 515-519
  23. Percival S, Sabbuba N, Kite P, Stickler D; The effect of EDTA instillations on the rate of development of encrustation and biofilms in Foley catheters;
  24. Mai-Prochnow A, Lucas-Elio P, Egan S, Thomas, T, Webb JS, Sanchez-Amat A, Kjelleberg S; Hydrogen peroxide likned to lysine oxidase activity facilitates biofilm differentiation and dispersal in several gram-negative bacteria; J Bacteriology Aug 2008 p 5493-5501
  25. Safdar N; Bloodstream infection: an ounce of prevention is a ton of work; Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology; June 2005: 26 (6): 511-514
  26. Stewart PS, Roe F, Rayner J, Elkins JG, Lewandski , Ochsner UA, Hassett DJ; Effect of catalase on hydrogen peroxide penetration into Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms; App Environ Microbiol Feb 2000; 66(2) 836-838
  27. Ramage G, Wickes BL, Lopez-Ribot JL; Inhibition of Candida albicans biofilm formation using divalent cation chelators (EDTA); Micopathologia 2007 Dec. 164 (6) 301-306
  28. Tice AD, Hoaglund PA, Nolet B, McKinnon PS, Mozaffari E; Cost perspectives for outpatient intravenous antimicrobial therapy; Pharmacotherapy 2002; 22(2s):63s-70s
  29. Wilcox MH, Tack KJ, Bouza E, Herr DL, Ruf BR, Ijzerman M, Croos-Dabrera RV, Kunkel  MJ, Knirsch C; Complicated skin and skin-structure infections and catheter-related bloodstream infections: noninferiority of linezolid in a phase 23 study; Clinical Infectious Diseases 2009; 48: 203-212